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Cinematographic art plays a very important role in world culture. Every year, the film company produced hundreds of films that attract millions of viewers to theaters and generating big profits.

Back in the nineties of the XIX century the famous American inventor Thomas Edison demonstrated his device to display moving images - a peep show. But after appearing in 1895 Cinematographe Lumiere cinema start rapidly gaining popularity with the public.

Then there were the first in the U.S. film company, and by the beginning of the XX century in the country were already dozens. Most of them were located in New York, but soon began to look for producers of films more suitable place for filming. For this there were two reasons: "the war of patents" and climatic conditions.

Most of the patents issued in the United States cinematographic equipment Thomas Edison, whose laboratory was located in New Jersey. Edison did not want to pay patent royalties movie producers were forced to hide from his agents, and on the east coast of the U.S. to do it was very difficult.

In addition, light-sensitivity film in those years was quite low, and powerful lighting equipment did not exist. Therefore, the process of filming very dependent on weather conditions - could only shoot in bright sunlight. Movie companies have sought to find a more "sunny" area than New York.

In 1910, the film company Biograph, one of the leading in the U.S. at the time, the first movie filmed in Los Angeles, California. Director David Griffith liked its picturesque landscapes and friendly people village Hollywood, located near the town. The first film made in Hollywood, began painting "In Old California". Before returning to New York, Griffith took off in a few Hollywood movies.

Attracted by the mild climate of California, lots of sunshine, allows you to shoot movies in the open air all year round, beautiful and diverse scenery and remoteness from New York and Edison in Los Angeles, almost all manufacturers have directed films. A new type of enterprise producing film production - film studio.

Most of us today known American film companies were established in the first quarter of the XX century (Paramount Pictures - 1912, Warner Brothers - in 1918, Columbia Pictures - 1919, Metro Goldwyn Mayer - 1924, etc.)

This was the era of silent movies that famous film director Alfred Hitchcock called "the purest form of cinema." Silent movie gave the world such stars as Charles Spencer "Charlie" Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Buster Keaton, Rudolph Valentino, and many others.

That all changed in the mid-twenties of the XX century. Experiments in sound synchronization with the image still conducted by Thomas Edison, who tried to combine two of their invention - the phonograph and a peep. Much attention is paid up the sound film studio Warner Brothers. In 1926, Warner Brothers released their first full-length film with synchronized sound effects and musical soundtrack - "Don Giovanni".

October 6, 1927 in the main theater studio in New York premiere of the first film in which the audience heard the actors. It was the movie "The Jazz Singer", access to screens that actually proclaimed the beginning of the sound era.

In the 1929 film "The Jazz Singer" was awarded a special prize "Oscar" for the "creation of the first sound picture that carried out a revolution in the industry."

And pretty soon, in 1935, the screens went first color film - "Becky Sharp."

It is believed that with the release in theaters "Jazz Singer" started "Golden Age" of Hollywood. In the next thirty years, until the end of the fifties, thousands of movies were released. Clearly define the genre of the major genres of movies (westerns, comedies, melodramas, musicals, thrillers, etc.), there was a system of production of films, the concept of "movie star."

Most of the paintings were photographed major film companies. In those years, was generally accepted, "studio" system, under which directors, actors, writers and other film professionals have been associated with any specific contracts film studio. Learn what kind of studio removed or that film, can be had for the cast of the picture. When the studio system in Hollywood had more weight producer of the film than its director. The artistic value of the film meant a lot less than they brought in a profit.

At the same time, during the "Golden Age of Hollywood" became well-known master of cinema such as Clark Gable, Greta Garbo, Walt Disney, Alfred Hitchcock and many others.

In 1937, Walt Disney released his famous cartoon "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs", which became the highest grossing film of its time, and to show that animation has a great future.

In 1939 the film was made, which is considered the most successful (in the commercial sense) picture of American cinema - "Gone with the Wind."

In 1941, the screens went shot Orson Welles picture "Citizen Kane," which today, many critics called the best film of all time.

Sixties-seventies of the XX century are known in the history of American cinema as the "New Hollywood."

By the early sixties established "studio" system of filmmaking began to falter. There were several reasons, including those adopted in the United States antitrust laws and the emergence of television.

For the period of the "New Hollywood" characteristic departure from the prevailing standards in the movie, the strong influence of European cinema, numerous artistic experiments.

In these decades, first heard of such famous names as Steven Spielberg, Francis Coppola, George Lucas, Martin Scorsese, Roman Polanski, and others.

In the seventies, there is a concept blockbuster - a film with a big budget and big box office. Among the first Hollywood blockbuster called "Jaws" and "Star Wars."

Modern American cinema - is primarily entertainment films with a budget of tens and hundreds of millions of dollars. To a large extent the success of the film at the box office depends on who were removed into it "stars" - famous actors, audience favorite.

Nevertheless, there is in the United States and "independent film." Typically, this low-budget films made little-known directors. "Independent films" is not linked to the creators need to bring maximum profit as action, and therefore they can often see theseor other creative experiments.

Often of an "independent" cinema go global stars such as the famous debut film was Quentin Tarantino film "Reservoir Dogs", which is now called classic independent cinema.



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